Wednesday, 18 December 2013

History of Rock Music- An Overview PART II

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1970's in Rock


The Beatles break up in 1970, but all four members continue to impact the decade with successful solo careers. The early seventies are marked by the deaths of Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin and Jim Morrison who all die at the age of 27. Pyschedelic music declines, but morphs into hard rock, progressive rock and heavy metal. Touring bands move from playing clubs and theaters, to playing sports arenas. 
Big time bands, many of them formed in the '60's, such as the Rolling Stones, Pink Floyd, The Who, Grand Funk and Led Zeppelin travel in private jets and play to thousands in arenas and outdoor stadiums.
A clear distinction emerges between Top 40 radio and FM album oriented rock radio stations. Car stereos become common, first with FM stereo radio, then 8-Track tapes, followed by cassette tapes.
This diversity of music distribution channels, along with an expanding market allows for a wide variety of new rock styles to emerge. The early seventies are dominated by singer songwriters and soft rock. Glam or Glitter Rock shines briefly in the first half of the seventies. Live albums are popular, with huge hits for Rare Earth, Peter Frampton, and Kiss. Reggae moves out of Jamaica to become a world wide genre. Disco dominates the radio and dance floors in the late seventies. Punk rock, a throwback to sixties garage rock, emerges in the late seventies as a reaction to arena rock, progressive rock and disco. Punk becomes New Wave as bands move beyond guitars and drums, and begin incorporating synthesizers.
Elvis Presley dies in 1977 at age 42. Huge crowds begin flocking to his Memphis home, Graceland.

 1970's Top 50 Best Selling Singles  Worldwide: 


  1 Simon & Garfunkel - Bridge Over Troubled Water - 1970

  2 Fleetwood Mac - Rumours - 1977

  3 Bee Gees - Saturday Night Fever - 1978
  4 Pink Floyd - Dark Side Of The Moon - 1973
  5 Led Zeppelin - Four Symbols (Led Zeppelin 4) - 1971
  6 Pink Floyd - The Wall - 1979
  7 Eagles - Hotel California - 1976
  8 The Rolling Stones - Sticky Fingers - 1971
 9 Grease: The Original Soundtrack - 1978
10 Pink Floyd - Wish You Were Here - 1975
11 Neil Young - Harvest - 1972
12 John Lennon - Imagine - 1971
13 The Rolling Stones - Exile On Main Street - 1972
14 Supertramp - Breakfast In America - 1979
15 Stevie Wonder - Songs In The Key Of Life - 1976
16 Carole King - Tapestry - 1971
17 The Beatles - Let It Be - 1970
18 Led Zeppelin - Houses Of The Holy - 1973
19 Elton John - Goodbye Yellow Brick Road - 1973
20 Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young - Deja Vu - 1970
21 Led Zeppelin - Led Zeppelin 3 - 1970
22 Michael Jackson - Off The Wall - 197923 Wings - Band On The Run - 1974
24 Queen - A Night At The Opera - 1975
25 George Harrison - All Things Must Pass - 1970
26 Deep Purple - Machine Head - 1972
27 Santana - Abraxas - 1970
28 Led Zeppelin - Physical Graffiti - 1975
29 Meatloaf - Bat Out Of Hell - 1977
30 The Who - Who's Next - 1971
31 Bruce Springsteen - Born To Run - 1975
32 Bob Dylan - Blood On The Tracks - 1975
33 Bob Dylan - Desire - 1976
34 The Beatles  - The Beatles 1967-1970 - 1973
35 Abba - Arrival - 1976
36 Billy Joel - 52nd Street - 1978
37 Janis Joplin - Pearl - 1971
38 Andrew Lloyd Webber - Jesus Christ Superstar - 1971
39 The Beatles - The Beatles 1962-1966 - 1973
40 Creedence Clearwater Revival - Cosmo's Factory - 1970
41 Bee Gees - Spirits Having Flown - 1979
42 Rod Stewart - Every Picture Tells A Story - 1971
43 Elton John Captain Fantastic & The Brown Dirt Cowboy 1975
44 The Rolling Stones - Some Girls - 1978
45 Black Sabbath - Paranoid - 1970
46 Cat Stevens - Teaser & The Firecat - 1971
47 Eagles - The Long Run - 1979
48 The Sex Pistols Never Mind The Bullocks, Here's The Sex Pistols - 1977
49 Simon & Garfunkel - Greatest Hits - 1972
50 Rod Stewart - Blondes Have More Fun - 1979 


1980's in Rock 


John Lennon is shot to death by a fan in 1980 just as he was coming back into the public eye with a new album. MTV (Music Television) is launched on 300 cable TV systems in 1981. By 1983 MTV is available on 2,000 cable systems. VH1 is launched in 1984 with a more classic rock format.The prevalance of music videos as a 24/7 marketing tool
is influential in bringing numerous new bands and music styles into the mainstream, including a resurgence in heavy metal, synthpop, new wave, rap and hip hop. The number of successful female artists, across many genres, is reflected in singles and album sales. Records and concerts to benefit charity are supported by many rock music artists. These include Band Aid, We Are The World, plus the Live Aid and Farm Aid concerts. 

1980's Top 50 Best Selling Singles  Worldwide:


  1   Michael Jackson - Thriller - 1982
  2   Dire Straits - Brothers In Arms - 1985
  3   U2 - The Joshua Tree - 1987
  4   Bruce Springsteen - Born In The USA - 1984
  5   Michael Jackson - Bad - 1987
  6   Prince - Purple Rain - 1984
  7   The Police - Synchronicity - 1983
  8   Paul Simon - Graceland - 1986
  9   Whitney Houston - Whitney Houston - 1986
10   Phil Collins - No Jacket Required - 1985
11   Guns n' Roses - Appetite For Destruction - 1987
12   Lionel Richie - Can't Slow Down - 1983
13   George Michael - Faith - 1987
14   Bon Jovi - Slippery When Wet - 1986
15   Original Soundtrack - Dirty Dancing - 1987
16   Tracy Chapman - Tracy Chapman - 1988
17   Def Leppard - Hysteria - 1987
18   AC/DC - Back In Black - 1980
19   Madonna - True Blue - 1986
20   U2 - Rattle & Hum - 1988
21   Whitney Houston - Whitney - 1987
22   John Lennon - Double Fantasy - 1980
23   Madonna - Like A Prayer - 1989
24   Original Soundtrack - Flashdance - 1983
25   Phil Collins - ... But Seriously - 1989
26   Madonna - Like A Virgin - 1984
27   Prince - Sign 'O' The Times - 1987
28   Culture Club - Colour By Numbers - 1983
29   Tears For Fears - Songs From The Big Chair - 1985
30   The Rolling Stones - Tattoo You - 1981
31   Bryan Adams - Reckless - 1985
32   Peter Gabriel - So - 1986
33   Barbra Streisand - Guilty - 1980
34   Bruce Springsteen - The River - 1980
35   Men At Work - Business As Usual - 1982
36   Paul McCartney - Tug Of War - 1982
37   The Police - Ghost In The Machine - 1981
38   Bob Marley - Legend, The Best Of Bob Marley - 1984
39   Bruce Springsteen - Tunnel Of Love - 1987
40   The Beastie Boys - Licensed To Ill - 1986
41   Phil Collins - Face Value - 1981
42   Sting - The Dream Of The Blue Turtles - 1985
43   Original Soundtrack - Footloose - 1984
44   Sting - ...Nothing Like The Sun - 1987
45   U2 - The Unforgettable Fire - 1984
46   Toto - Toto IV - 1982
47   David Bowie - Let's Dance - 1983
48   Wham! - Make It Big - 1984
49   Fine Young Cannibals - The Raw & The Cooked - 1989

50   Roxy Music - Avalon - 1982

1990's in Rock




Alternative Rock and it's sub-genres Grunge and Pop Punk expand in popularity and ironically, explode into the mainstream during the 1990's. Major labels begin luring independent bands away from small record labels. These artists are resistant to the demands of big record companies and unwilling to change styles to reach a mass market audience. Nevertheless, many alternative bands, including REM, The Smashing Pumpkins, Red Hot Chilli Peppers, The Smiths and grunge bands like Nirvana, Soundgarden,  Pearl Jam and others find success with mainstream audiences.
Another alternative to radioplay and traditional mainstream success is the rise in Jam Bands influenced by the Grateful Dead. Noted for cross genre improvisation and extended jams, bands such as Phish, Blues Traveler, Dave Matthews Band, and Widespread Panic rely on album sales and live concerts.
Heavy metal morphs into new sub-genres such as rap metal or rapcore, nu metal and industrial metal. Electronic music continues to change as well, with techno and house splitting into new styles including trance, drums & bass, trip-hop and eurodance. In the 90's Hip-Hop continues to expand in inluence and grow in diversity. 
With huge growth in sales, radio airplay and overall success for artists like NWA, Public Enemy, Queen Latifah, Salt n' Pepa, Ice T, Dr. Dre, Eminem, Tupac Shakur, Cypress Hill and many others.
Pop and teen-pop continue to appeal to a younger radio audience with the Backstreet Boys, *NSYNC, 98 Degrees, Hanson and The Spice Girls having major success. Late in the decade female teen pop artists ascend with major hits by Jennifer Lopez, Destiny's Child, Christina Aguilera, and Britney Spears. Contemporary R&B also scores big on the pop charts especially for Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey, TLC, Toni Braxton, Celine Dion and Boys II Men.
In the UK the term BritPop is coined as new bands Oasis and Blur battle for the top of the charts. Singer / Songwriters enjoy a resurgence especially for female artists like Norah Jones, Sarah McLachlan, Alanis Morissette, Tori Amos, Jewel, Natalie Merchant and Sheryl Crow.
Advancements in computers and software allow for digital music creation and recording on home computers. The internet and sound compression allow for digital distribution of music, often bypassing the need for a major label album release.

 1990's Top 50 Best Selling Singles  Worldwide:


  1   Alanis Morissette - Jagged Little Pill
  2   Nirvana - Nevermind
  3   Whitney Houston - The Bodyguard
  4   Metallica - Metallica
  5   Santana - Supernatural
  6   REM - Automatic For The People
  7   U2 - Achtung Baby
  8   Celine Dion - Falling Into You
  9   Eric Clapton - Unplugged
10   Oasis - (What's The Story) Morning Glory?
11   Spice Girls - Spice
12   The Fugees - The Score
13   Shania Twain - Come On Over
14   Celine Dion - Let's Talk About Love
15   Radiohead - OK Computer
16   REM - Out Of Time
17   Sinead O'Connor - I Do Not Want What I Haven't Got
18   Mariah Carey - Daydream
19   Celine Dion & James Horner - Titanic
20   Guns n' Roses - Use Your Illusion II
21   Mariah Carey - Music Box
22   Pearl Jam - Ten
23   Lauryn Hill - The Miseducation Of Lauryn Hill
24   The Backstreet Boys - Millennium
25   Michael Jackson - Dangerous
26   Red Hot Chili Peppers - Californication
27   Michael Jackson - History - Past, Present & Future
28   The Smashing Pumpkins Mellon Collie & The Infinite Sadness
29   No Doubt - Tragic Kingdom
30   Madonna - Ray Of Light
31   Nirvana - In Utero
32   The Prodigy - The Fat Of The Land
33   Nirvana - Unplugged In New York
34   Celine Dion -  All The Way... A Decade Of Songs
35   Britney Spears - Baby One More Time
36   Pearl Jam - Vs
37   U2 - Zooropa
38   Abba - Gold, Greatest Hits
39   Green Day - Dookie
40   Red Hot Chili Peppers - Blood Sugar Sex Magik
41   Metallica - Load
42   Pink Floyd - The Division Bell
43   Madonna - The Immaculate Collection
44   Meatloaf - Bat Out Of Hell II, Back Into Hell
45   Bon Jovi - Crossroad - The Best Of Bon Jovi
46   Ricky Martin - Ricky Martin
47   MC Hammer - Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em
48   Bryan Adams - Waking Up The Neighbours
49   REM - Monster
50   Bryan Adams - So Far So Good 

Read Part I here


Sources and References :

https://www.coursera.org/course/historyofrock1
http://rockmusic.mu/classic-rock-music.html
www.michaeljackson.com/
http://www.rockmusictimeline.com/1970s.html
www.queenonline.com/
www.rollingstone.com
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/100-greatest-artists-of-all-time-19691231
http://rateyourmusic.com/list/ryanfze/top_50_rock_bands_of_all_time/

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